Am I Excluded Because I am Disabled?

Pengaruh Ostracism terhadap Tingkat Kebutuhan Dasar Individu Penyandang Disabilitas

  • Widyarta Mega Paramita,
  • Unita Werdi Rahajeng
  • Slamet Thohari
  • Ersa Rizky Riyani
  • Puspita Kartikasari
Keywords: social exclusion, level of needs, disability, eksklusi sosial, tingkat kebutuhan, disabilitas

Abstract

To date, social exclusion (ostracism) is a ubiquitous phenomenon happen in life, including to people with disabilities. Although the negative consequences of ostracism has been massively studied, No. study has specifically examined the consequences of ostracism for people with disabilities. The present study primarily focused on investigating how social exclusion can affect the needs level (i.e., belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence) of people with disabilities. Variables were measured by comparing the scores of needs of people with and without disabilities, before and after exclusion manipulated by online ball-throwing game. Study was an experimental research with a between-subject design. A total of 69 college students were participated in this study. Results showed that exclusion significantly differs the level of belonging, self-esteem, and meaningful existence while disability status only showed significant difference in control variable. Additional result also demonstrated that people with disabilities reported a higher control when being excluded compared to people without disabilities.

Hingga saat ini eksklusi sosial (ostracism) masih kerap terjadi, tidak terkecuali pada individu penyandang disabilitas. Meski telah banyak penelitian yang menginvestigasi dampak negatif eksklusi pada manusia, studi yang secara spesifik meneliti eksklusi pada individu penyandang disabilitas belum banyak dilakukan. Penelitian ini secara khusus ditujukan untuk mengetahui bagaimana eksklusi sosial memengaruhi aspek tingkat kebutuhan dasar (belonging, self-esteem, control, dan meaningful existence) individu penyandang disabilitas. Variabel tersebut diukur dengan cara membandingkan skor variabel individu non-disabilitas dan penyandang disabilitas sebelum dan sesudah manipulasi eksklusi yang diberikan melalui permainan lempar bola online. Penelitian merupakan penelitian eksperimen dengan between-subject design. Sebanyak 69 mahasiswa secara sukarela berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa manipulasi eksklusi berhasil secara signifikan memengaruhi variabel belonging, self-esteem, dan meaningful existence sementara disabilitas hanya memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap variabel kontrol. Hasil lebih lanjut juga menunjukkan bahwa individu penyandang disabilitas justru memiliki kontrol lebih tinggi ketika dikucilkan secara sosial dibandingkan individu non-disabilitas.

References

Atkins, R., Daniel, H., & Donnelly, T. D. (2005). The Association Of Childhood Personality Type Referensi
Baumeister, R. (2005). Rejected and Alone. The Psychologist, 18(12), 732–735.
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The Need to Belong: Desire for Interpersonal Attachments as a Fundamental Human Motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529.
Baumeister, Roy F, Brewer, L. E., Tice, D. M., & Twenge, J. M. (2007). Thwarting the Need to Belong: Understanding the Interpersonal and Inner Effects of Social Exclusion. Social Pers Psych Compass Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1(1), 506–520.
Blackhart, G. C., Nelson, B. C., Knowles, M. L., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). Rejection Elicits Emotional Reactions but Neither Causes Immediate Distress nor Lowers Self-Esteem: A Meta-Analytic Review of 192 Studies on Social Exclusion. Pers Soc Psychol Rev Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13(4), 269–309.
Byrne, D. (2005). Social Exclusion (2 edition). Open University Press.298 Widyarta Mega Paramita, dkk
Carter, B., & Spencer, V. G. (2006). The Fear Factor: Bullying and Students with Disabilities. International Journal of Special Education, 21.
Case, T. I., & Williams, K. D. (2004). Ostracism: A Metaphor for Death. Dalam Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology (hlm. 336–351). Guilford Press.
Coopersmith, S. (1967). The Antecedents of Self-Esteem. W.H. Freeman.
de Monchy, M., Pijil, S. J., & Zandberg, T. (2004). Discrepancies in Judging Social Inclusion and Bullying of Pupils with Behaviour Problems. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 19(3), 317–330.
Gerber, J., & Wheeler, L. (2009). On Being Rejected: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Research on Rejection. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(5), 468–488.
Leary, M. (2005). Varieties of Interpersonal Rejection.
Leary, M. R., Tambor, E. S., Terdal, S. K., & Downs, D. L. (1995). Self-Esteem as an Interpersonal Monitor: The Sociometer Hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(3), 518–530.
Litt, M. D. (1988). Self-Efficacy and Perceived Control: Cognitive Mediators of Pain Tolerance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(1), 149–160.
Nakken, H., & Pijl, S. J. (2002). Getting Along with Classmates in Regular Schools: A Review of the Effects of Integration on the Development of Social Relationships. International Journal Of Inclusive Education, 6, 47–62.
Peirce, J. W. (2009). Generating Stimuli for Neuroscience Using PsychoPy. Frontiers in Neuroinformatics, 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/neuro.11.010.2008
Seligman, M. E. P. (1973). Learned Helplessness. Psychology Today.
Thompson, D., Whitney, I., & Smith, P. K. (1994). Bullying of Children with Special Needs in Mainstream Schools. Support for Learning Support for Learning, 9(3), 103–106.
Twyman, K. A., Saylor, C. F., Saia, D., Macias, M. M., Taylor, L. A., & Spratt, E. (2010). Bullying and Ostracism Experiences in Children with Special Health Care Needs. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 31(1), 1–8.
van Beest, I., & Williams, K. D. (2006). When Inclusion Costs and Ostracism Pays, Ostracism Still Hurts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(5), 918–928. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.91.5.918
Wesselmann, E. D., Bagg, D., & Williams, K. D. (2009). “I Feel Your Pain”: The effects of Observing Ostracism on the Ostracism Detection System. YJESP Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(6), 1308–1311.
Williams, K. D., Cheung, C. K., & Choi, W. (2000). Cyberostracism: Effects of Being Ignored Over the Internet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(5), 748–762. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.79.5.748
Williams, K., & Nida, S. (2011). Ostracism: Consequences and Coping. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(2), 71–75.
Williams, Kipling D. (1997). Social Ostracism. Dalam Aversive interpersonal behaviors (hlm. 133–170). Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-9354-3_7Am I Excluded Because I am Disabled? 299
Williams, Kipling D. (2001). Ostracism: The Power of Silence. Guilford. https://researchers.mq.edu.au/en/publications/ostracism-the-power-of-silence
Williams, Kipling D. (2007). Ostracism. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 425–452. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085641
Williams, Kipling D. (2009). Ostracism: A temporal Need-Threat Model. Dalam Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol 41 (hlm. 275–314). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)00406-1
Williams, Kipling D. (2018). List of Cyberball publications. https://www1.psych.purdue.edu/~willia55/Announce/cyberball.htm
Williams, Kipling D, & Jarvis, B. (2006). Cyberball: A Program for Use in Research on Interpersonal Ostracism and Acceptance. Behavior Research Methods Behavior Research Methods, 38(1), 174–180.
Williams, Kipling D., & Zadro, L. (2005). Ostracism: The indiscriminate Early Detection System. Dalam The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection, and bullying (hlm. 19–34). Psychology Press.
Zadro, L., Williams, K. D., & Richardson, R. (2004). How Low Can You Go? Ostracism by a Computer is Sufficient to Lower Self-Reported Levels of Belonging, Control, SelfEsteem, and Meaningful Existence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40(4), 560–567. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2003.11.006
Published
2020-07-13
How to Cite
Widyarta Mega Paramita, Unita Werdi Rahajeng, Slamet Thohari, Ersa Rizky Riyani, & Puspita Kartikasari. (2020). Am I Excluded Because I am Disabled?. The Indonesian Conference on Disability Studies and Inclusive Education, 1, 283-299. Retrieved from http://conference.uin-suka.ac.id/index.php/icodie/article/view/25